1.1 Background of the study

A political-social awareness of the need to strengthen and ensure the protection of regions of high aesthetic value has emerged in recent years in response to the continuous degradation of our physical landscapes. In order to improve the aesthetics of such a protected setting, numerous governments have recently tapped into this mindset. This means banning various operations there.

The air, water, minerals, organisms, and other external conditions that surround someone or something are all considered to be part of their environment. This is according to the 2016 edition of the Webster dictionary. This condition also influences and affects the growth, health, and progress of that person or thing. Aesthetics, on the other hand, is concerned with the science of emotions. Obviously in relation to the perception of beauty (The American Heritage, 2016). TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

Environmental aesthetics developed in response to this emphasis, focusing on the aesthetic appreciation of natural environments. Since its inception, environmental aesthetics has expanded to include not only natural but also human and human-influenced environments. Simultaneously, the discipline has expanded to include the investigation of what falls within such environments. Particularly, giving rise to what is known as the aesthetics of everyday life art (Morgan, &Bath, 1998). This discipline is concerned with the aesthetics of not only everyday objects and environments. Also including a wide range of everyday activities.

Since its inception in the late 1960s, environmental aesthetics has progressively increased in significance. Although discussions of the aesthetics of nature have long been a part of philosophy. However, not until the twentieth century environmental movements that the field of aesthetics began to recognise issues. Issues relating to the aesthetic value of the environment and its role in balancing environmental concerns and psychological wellbeing (Morgan, &Bath, 1998).

Instead of focusing on artworks, environmental aesthetics draws attention to psychological difficulties in aesthetics as they relate to surroundings, natural objects within environments, and natural occurrences and processes (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010). The field has mostly focused on natural settings, but its scope has increasingly expanded to include mixed environments. Such as those that have undergone human modification or impact, such as gardens, as well as the human environments of daily life. Including components of the built environment (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010). The public’s interest for the visual quality of commonplace situations serves as one of the driving forces behind environmental aesthetics research, which has expanded in two ways beyond traditional aesthetics. First, unlike traditional aesthetics, environmental aesthetics incorporates various types of empirical work on the human aesthetic experience of environments. TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

There are several different approaches to this type of research. One movement, for example, arose from environmental design and planning disciplines. Such as landscape architecture and attempts to analyse and assess aesthetic experience. Which in terms of design features recognised and valued by these disciplines. Another type of empirical work is more closely related to resource and recreational management.Entirely focusing on measuring different individuals’ aesthetic preferences for different environments. Furthermore, there are efforts to provide what are primarily sociobiological underpinnings for environmental appreciation, as well as attempts to apply a wide range of aesthetic experience models grounded in, for example, developmental and environmental psychology, to such appreciation. Furthermore, there have been various attempts to connect this empirical work with the philosophical side of environmental aesthetics (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).

The second expansion of environmental aesthetics’ scope has three scales that can be used to track its subject matter. On the first, the subjects of appreciation for environmental aesthetics range from pristine natural settings to the very edges of conventional works of art. This is according to some reports, even some of the latter. Environments of all sizes, such as mountain ranges, rural areas, and markets, frequently depicts as archetypal objects. Which is seen in environmental aesthetics.

However, the field also takes into account the smaller and more private environments, such as living rooms, workplaces, and backyards, as well as the huge and tiny artefacts that adorn each location. Both the vast and the spectacular are not the only things that might be considered to be beautiful in terms of the environment. Ordinary scenery, everyday sights, and our everyday environments are appropriate aesthetic objects. Environmental aesthetics is essentially everyday aesthetics (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010). TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

Our air was clean and wholesome prior to the advancement of science and technology. The introduction of automobiles into society brought with it advantages and disadvantage. Such as air pollution, noise pollution, and so on. Along with other social issues that have had a significant impact on the psychological well-being of people living in such environments over time. Policymakers on both the national and international levels are becoming more interested in psychological or subjective well-being. Pointing a sign of society progress (Dolan, Layard and Metcalfe, 2011).

Life going well is a key component of psychological well-being. It consists of having a positive attitude and performing well. The experiencing of painful emotions (such as disappointment, failure, or sadness) is a natural part of life. And the capability to control these unpleasant or painful emotions is crucial for long-term well-being. Therefore, sustained well-being does not require people to always feel happy. Negative emotions that are severe or persistent interfering with a person’s capacity to operate in daily life jeopardise psychological well-being. The idea of feeling good encompasses a range of feelings, including interest, engagement, confidence, and affection, in addition to the good emotions of happiness and contentment. The idea of functioning well (in a psychological sense) entails realising one’s potential, having some degree of control over one’s life, having a feeling of purpose (such as working toward important goals), and having satisfying relationships (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).

16.4% of the UK population suffers from a mental health issue, according to the most recent national poll available (Singleton et al., 2001). The frequency of mental illness is 20% in Nigeria, according to reports (Shekhar, Gureje, 2006). But what proportion of people are mentally thriving, or experiencing a high degree of psychological well-being? Thriving people, according to Keyes (2002), are enthusiastic about life and actively and effectively involved with others and in social structures. According to US data, only about 17% of adults are flourishing, while 11% are lagging behind (Keyes, 2002). TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

The term languishing refers to a condition in which a person’s life appears empty or stagnant, a life of quiet despair, despite the absence of mental illness (Keyes, 2002). Keyes (2004) discovered that “languishers” are at a much higher risk of depression and physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease. He has suggested that languishing is common among young people, many of whom are looking for ways to fill the voids in their lives. Though frequently used in this manner, sex, drugs, and alcohol only serve to widen the hole and make the person more dysfunctional. Data on the frequency of either flourishing or languishing are currently unavailable.

According to Steptoe and Demakakos (2011), there are three different types of psychological wellbeing: evaluative well-being (general life satisfaction), affective or hedonic well-being (enjoyment, positive affect, and depressive symptoms), and eudemonic well-being (purpose in life, self-acceptance, and control). Research has shown that psychological well-being has a curvilinear relationship with age, being higher in respondents aged 60–69 and 70–79 than it was in In high-income nations, a pattern resembling this has previously been documented. Psychological well-being exhibits a clear socioeconomic gradient, with wealthier populations generally having higher levels of wellbeing.

In comparison to measures of positive affect and pleasure of life, the effects are more pronounced for evaluative and eudemonic elements of wellbeing. Greater psychological well-being was linked to both paid and volunteer work (Steptoe, &Demakakos, 2011). Marriage (as opposed to never married, divorced/separated, or widowed), as physically active, quitting smoking, and having improving cognitive functions all link to higher psychological well-being. Although there are differences depending on how one feels about different parts of their well-being, there are significant cross-sectional connections between psychological well-being and health, particularly in regard to chronic illness and disability.

• Between 2002-03 and 2010-11 in ELSA, there was a little but steady decline in affective well-being, with comparable patterns in different age groups. The quality of life has not exhibited comparable trends during this time (Steptoe, &Demakakos, 2011). TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

The term “psychological well-being” describes how people view their lives. Diener (1997) states that these evaluations may take the shape of cognitions or affect. The cognitive component is an information-based appraisal of one’s life, which occurs when a person makes deliberate judgements about how satisfied they are with their life as a whole.

The emotional component is a hedonic assessment driven by emotions and feelings, such as the frequency with which people react to their life by having good or negative moods. This is predicated on the idea that most individuals categorise their lives as either excellent or bad, thus they can typically pass judgement. Additionally, emotions and moods are always present in people and can have either a beneficial or bad impact. The psychological system provides essentially a constant evaluation of what is happening to the person, and as a result, people have a certain level of subjective well-being even if they do not often consciously think about it.

Current social indicators can capture phenomena like crime, divorce, environmental problems, infant mortality, gender equality, etc. As a result, they can record characteristics of quality of life that complement the picture painted by economic statistics. However, because they do not reflect actual experiences like the calibre of relationships, the control over their emotions, or whether feelings of loneliness and despair permeate their daily lives, these social indicators fall short of capturing the subjective well-being of people. The physical environment, on the other hand, has a significant impact on psychological health (Klitzman, 1989). Klitzman (1989) discovered that environmental factors including poor air quality, noise, poor ergonomics, and a lack of privacy may have an impact on employees’ mental health. TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

These unfavourable environmental circumstances have greatly worsened due to our ageing population. As our air is constantly polluted by an increasing number of vehicles, particularly the commercial tricycle (keke). Despite the fact that it is adaptable, this mode of transportation can access all types of road networks, making its introduction cost-effective. But the existence of these tricycles has also posed a threat to society in a number of ways.

In addition to noise and environmental pollution, the majority of tricycle drivers lack sufficient training. Undoubtedly resulting in a variety of traffic accidents and pandemonium. Although tricycles are safer and more dependable than motorcycles. The Federal Government’s attempt in 2002 to ease transportation issues and promote opportunities for self-employment for the unemployed and the jobless might be blamed for the spread of tricycle brands in the Nigerian market (Sun, 2009). However, some Nigerian states have chosen not to employ the tricycle, while others have embraced it wholeheartedly (Edike, 2009). (Imo, 2009).

It is commonly known as “KEKE NAPEP” to refer to this commercial tricycle arrangement. Tricycle is known as a “keke” in native languages, while NAPEP is an acronym for the National Poverty Eradication Programme (Josiah, 2008). It is important to remember that most commuters utilise buses, tricycles, and motorcycles to get around. While some use cabs. The demand for motorcycle and tricycle services is primarily due to the growth in the urban population. This is especially among those living in smaller communities outside of urban areas.

However, some riders favour the tricycle over the motorbike due to the latter’s superior price, availability, and safety (Sun, 2009). In the majority of Nigerian cities, low- and middle-income people live on the outskirts with the city centre crowded with commercial buildings. Due to this, commuters inevitably travel further and in vehicles for an estimated two more journeys per person. With the information provided above, it is evident that a mobility crisis caused by a demand/supply gap is imminent.

Tricycles came into existence as new transportation options emerged. Particularly because of their adaptability and need to keep up with socioeconomic trends. In Nigeria, the majority of tricycle models are motorbikes with side vehicles. It occupies a maximum of four people, including the driver. Due to their high accessibility, availability, affordability, and convenience, tricycles are a well-liked form of public transit among commuters. They are a vital part of Nigeria’s overall transportation system because they are significantly less expensive than other vehicles in terms of fares. In rural areas, tricycles are the most practical mode of transportation, particularly between the main town and the countryside.

They are typically found in minor roads, lanes, and alleys within large cities. Where other public transportation does not or cannot operate. Despite the need to promote tricycles over motorcycles, which are notorious for fatal crashes and other forms of vulnerability. These three-wheeled vehicles pose environmental and social challenges like fine particle emission, noise, lack of paved roads. Including lack of parks and terminals on designated routes for hitch-free conveyance of passengers, Lack of waste baskets leading to passengers throwing wastes rampantly on the streets, and lack of parks and terminals. But these difficulties may have an impact on people’s psychological health as well as the aesthetic appeal of the surroundings. TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AS A WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste describes something that is not or no longer usable and is to be thrown away or disposed of (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2010). Waste management is another component that supports environmental aesthetics and human psychological wellness. Once more,waste connotes any disposable substance because there is no direct value to the producer (Ita, 2005). Every developing or industrial society produces waste, and it must dispose of it.

The poor solid waste management tactics and procedures used in Nigerian cities provide the false impression. In as much as the issues are insurmountable. This stems from the fact that garbage accumulation in Nigerian cities is a major cause of environmental annoyance. Due to the fact that the rates of collection and evacuation are constantly behind the rates of generation. Therefore, waste management focuses on the interaction between generation, storage, collection, and final disposal (Omuta, 1988). Approximately 100 metric tonnes of solid trash heaps up each day in 1980, according to Sada (1984). Over the past ten years, Nigeria has seen a huge increase in waste from both residential and commercial sources. A resident adds to the waste mountain each time he or she shops at a store or open market.

It is feasible to cite statistics that shows millions of tonnes of rubbish produced each year. Since 15 years, the proportion of Nigerians living in cities and other urban regions has more than doubled (Jimoh, 2005). Cities and metropolitan regions are constantly expanding, which greatly contributes to the development of solid and liquid garbage. Waste management is a problem that affects both countries and the world. The issue does not concern the amount of waste production. But how well or poorly governments, people, and waste management companies handle the work of managing waste and the environment. Without a question, a dirty atmosphere degrades people’s health, aesthetic sensibility, and level of living, which lowers their ability to enjoy life (Mowoe, 1990).

The logical conclusion is that improperly disposing of or storing this waste could endanger society by causing pollution of the air, land, and particularly the water (Mowoe, 1990). To improve environmental aesthetics and psychological wellness in Uyo, this study aims to evaluate how waste management and vehicular (keke-Napep)restriction techniques are perceived.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Uyo, the capital of AkwaIbom state, has seen a rise in its population recently. The metropolis is quickly swelled beyond its capacity. Waste management issues grow in number along with the population. By its very nature, waste management requires a lot of resources and money. Cost-wise, this is really expensive. The management of household garbage consumes a sizable portion of state government budgets. In Lagos State, for instance, the government spends 20 to 25 percent of its budget on trash management. However, the population it serves dwarfs what this sum might achieve.

In addition to harming the environment’s aesthetic appeal. Improper waste management can have a negative impact on people’s physical and mental health. The proliferation of tricycles has made the issue of urban overpopulation worse by sometimes. In other words, making transportation in the city extremely slow. Although the recent ban on tricycles in several areas of Uyo has decreased traffic jam and improved environmental aesthetics. However, majority of people are still need to endure a long commute before they can fulfil their daily activities.

Aside from the stress, the areas where these tricycles have permission, frequently gets congested. Polluted with both noise and exhaust fumes, and these pollutions have an impact on people’s psychological well-being. Psychological well-being predicts disability onset, slower walking speed, poor self-rated health, and the occurrence of coronary heart disease.

These findings regarding the development of poor health. In other words, mortality suggest that measuring psychological well-being in conjunction with environmental aesthetics may aid in identifying individuals at risk of future health problems and functional impairment. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of vehicular (Keke-NAPEP) restriction and waste management. Including strategies in improving environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being in Uyo metropolis. The research questions listed below will be investigated:

  1. Will waste management practises have an impact on environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being?
  2. Will the ban on tricycles have an impact on environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being?
1.3 Purpose of the study

The goal of this study is to look at how people in Uyo perceive vehicular (keke-NAPEP) restriction. Subsequently, with waste management strategies in terms of improving environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being.

1.4 Significance of the study

The study’s findings will benefit policymakers and the general public in the following ways:

  • It would assist legislators in drafting laws that will improve public psychological and environmental health.
  • It will make the citizen more aware of the importance of correctly managing our garbage. In order to preserve psychological health.
  • Additionally, it will motivate scientists to do studies on the aesthetics of the environment and psychological health.
  • It will also add to the body of knowledge already written about the subject.


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